Pipe Runs

Making fuel lines is a little frustrating but ultimately satisfying. Frustrating because when you bend pipe you only get one shot at it. Any one bend in the wrong place or at the wrong angle means throwing that piece away because you can’t un-bend it. Satisfying because whilst you know that no one will ever appreciate the work it took, YOU know that no one noticing it means you got it right…

Putting pipe runs to one side for a minute, having managed to get all the engine cooling elements fabricated,  sealed and holding water – I shifted my attention to the electricals and I have I *think* put the distributor into a position where it should be close enough to allow the engine to start, it can be adjusted once the engine is running.  There are no ignition timing marks on these cars plus I have updated the internals of the distributor to be electronic (and not need the unreliable points) so it is now impossible to tell visually or otherwise when the high voltage surge would be sent to a spark plug.

The carburetors have been setup based on experience in what I will call a ‘default’ position which again should be close enough to allow the engine to breathe but will need adjustment for maximum power (coughs theatrically). I have adjusted all the throttle linkages so that both carburetors open together and adjusted all the linkages from the throttle pedal to the carburetors taking out the loose play. I also had the foresight to fabricate a solid pedal stop in order to prevent a heavy right foot bending the carburetor linkages but all of that is now in place and ready to go

So back to the title of this post – pipe runs, more specifically – fuel.

In early motoring history fuel was fed to the engine using gravity requiring the fuel tank to be above the engine, technology moved on and by the 1920’s cars commonly had a hand-operated pump on the dashboard which pressurised the fuel tank with air. (yes seriously) following pneumatic principles, the compressed air pushed the fuel out of the tank towards the engine. When you stop the engine there is a manually operated tap on the fuel tank to let the pressurised air out again. The fundamental flaw in that design is that you needed to rebuild the air pressure over a surprisingly short distance. One of the jobs of a riding mechanic was to operate that pump throughout the journey. Luckily Riley’s were always on the forefront of design and in the 30’s it was common to have an electric fuel pump mounted onto the bulkhead in the engine bay. Thank you Percy.

Where the pump is mounted is not an aesthetic decision – these pumps are not able to ‘suck’ fuel up to a great height and they also need to be close to the carburetors to keep the pipe run short.

In my car, there are not actually many places the pump can be mounted. Once a decision was made, I then had to work out how to route the copper pipe from the pump to the carburetors making sure it would not be in the way of any moving parts such as the gearbox linkage.  I also have to factor in how the pipe from the fuel tank gets to the pump. 5/16 copper pipe doesn’t bend at acute angles so the shape of the pipe run also needs to consider those bend angles. Back to the first paragraph – get the angles wrong and you throw away the pipe. A challenge – I like it.

I first worked out how the pipe needs to route to get to the bulkhead, it had to go up and over the gearbox linkage but not obstruct the fuel mixture adjustment nut on the rear carburetor. Now I had to work out where the pump could sit giving me enough room for the inlet pipe and the outlet pipe. It was soon apparent that this was going to be a complex piece of pipe bending.

The picture below shows you just how complex it needed to be and the tool that pulls the pipe around a mandrel and into shape:

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The full 360 degree bend (which was quite interesting to achieve!) is to allow the pipe to have some flexibility – the engine will move when it is running – the fuel pump is bolted to a non moving surface. If the pipe was rigid; over time the to and fro movement would cause a fracture in the pipe and the fuel pump would happily provide a pressurised spray of fuel all over a hot engine. This is something I am fairly keen to avoid.

In the picture below you can see the pump-to-carburettor pipe in its final position. I am rather proud to say this was achieved on my second attempt. The only reason had to reject the first try was because I wasnt paying sufficient attention and kinked one bend because the pipe fed into tool incorrectly. But I am rather pleased with only needing two tries. I suspect the experience gained restoring my Etype Jaguar (that blog is at www.connor.org.uk) which had a LOT of pipes that needed complex shaping, had given me sufficient knowledge to progress with confidence.

Out of the left side of the pump will be another pipe that will run straight down, back under the car along the inside of the chassis rail to the fuel tank – I have that excitement to look forward to another day – thats a 6 foot pipe to play with…

Once both pipes are finished I will solder the connections on and then antique the pipe work so that it matches my earlier brass work that can be seen below.
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Oh how I laughed… i thought i had fitted all the parts i need to in order for the engine to hold water, sadly I found that was not the case. The hoses needed clamps, the pipe from the waterpump to the side of the engine was loose but most annoyingly – the exhaust manifold studs are it transpires drilled into the water jacket. Naturally when I filled up the radiator – i had 4 nice waterfalls…

Oh. I would normally just put a few drops of stud sealer onto the threads or more often as not seal the threads with PTFE tape but this is the exhaust manifold and it will get jolly hot. Much pondering later and many conversations with other Vintage car owners i opted for both PTFE tape and thread sealer. So the exhaust manifold is now fully bolted into place. I have jumped over the joys of making the exhaust manifold gaskets after the many hours of filing the holes of the 10mm thick stainless steel manifold.

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So here are all the completed components of the cooling…

The non standard (but period) waterpump complete with a brass bung (crafted on the lathe) to fill in another inlet hole that i have no use for.
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The non standard pipe work from the waterpump to the radiator and the one into the side of the engine
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The non standard alloy pipe from the top of the engine up to the radiator – also fitted with the sender for the temperature guage
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So now in theory I have a thermo-syphoning cooling system assisted by a mechanically driven water pump.

Spare Wheel(s) carrier

This week I finished off the fabrication and machining of the mounting that will hang 2 spare wheels at the rear of the car. This is a classic vintage car look but having TWO spare wheels is a little more unusual. The challenge was to make a mounting that looked like it was always supposed to be there. You may recall that back In November I started mocking up a wood template which looked like this:
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The wooden template was then transferred to a sheet of 5mm steel, cut to shape, welded together and then welded to the rather substantial cross tube handily placed at the rear of the chassis.
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Next I need something to secure the wheel to the bracket – that took the form of a rear axle splined hub which was then bolted to the bracket. The spare wheel then slides onto the hub in the same way as it would fit to the axle. But there is nothing stopping the wheel working its way off that hub and bouncing into traffic so I needed something to secure it into place. A normal wheel spinner would have worked except that i also need to use this mounting for the rear number plate and rear lights so I needed an engineering solution. My chosen solution is a 10mm steel bar secured to the rear plate with a spin on securing handle to lock the wheel into place
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A couple of weeks ago I mentioned that i was making a component on the lathe – well this is where *that* component is fitted. I had a nice chrome fitment that I *think* may well have been used to secure the spare wheel in the boot of the car (I dont actually know what it was for – it came with the car) but the central hole is about twice the size of my 10mm bar. So I machined a spacer to take up that difference which slides onto the bar and is held in place by the spin on handle.
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The spin on handle now clamps the whole thing together and I think looks pretty nice.
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Or it could fit on this way round which is not ‘normal’ but is pedestrian friendly.
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Ah I hear you say, what about the 2nd spare wheel…

Well… ages ago I saw on Ebay a fellow selling what he called an extended wheel spinner for very few pennies. I rather suspect he didn’t know what it was and he only had one hence the incredibly low price. I saw the potential for it to be used to mount a second spare wheel so I grabbed it. I have not seen another one ever!!!
What this extended hub does is spin onto the end of the splined axle hub just like a normal wheel spinner does and therefore clamps the spare wheel down tight. I had the thought that the extended part was sufficiently long enough to support another wheel but now i needed a longer 10mm bar for the securing handle. Making one was a thing of moments.
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The second wheel slides onto the extended hub and the whole caboodle is clamped down as before. When the 2nd wheel has a Tyre they are both realistically clamped together. You now know why the bracket had to be welded on – its carrying quite a bit of weight.
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Voila – i can now mount 1 or 2 spare tyres on the back of the car. As a design feature the exhaust pipe is designed to slightly curve towards the edge of the 2nd tyre, no one will ever notice this feature but it looks really nice 🙂 oh and the Bentley petrol cap is easily accessible with either one or two tyres fitted. This is something else that had to be thought about when the fuel tank was made.

I am now realising that restoring cars as they came out of the factory is easy in comparison to having to design everything way in advance of getting around to fitting it. So far I am doing okay with the advance thinking – fingers crossed / knock on wood etc.
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Why is nothing ever easy?

I am conscious I haven’t reported in recently…

This is not due to lack of effort, in reality I have been working on the car in a number of areas: primarily working towards getting the Engine up and running. Sadly I keep discovering that I cant do something because something else needs to be done first. Naturally I only discover this after working on the original something for a number of hours.

To get the engine running, all I basically need to do is

New oil
The Engine has been drained and all the filter system sludge literally scraped out – fixed the drain plug and wired it into place as per competition regs. New gasket made for the internal filter housing because it didn’t have one (no wonder it leaked oil)

Gearbox drained and all the filter system cleaned out (not as sludgy as the engine) – New gasket made for the internal filter housing as that too didn’t have one (no wonder that too leaked oil)

A barrel of vintage type oil ordered and received. The gearbox oil is replaced every 5000 miles as is the engine oil but initially the engine oil will be changed a LOT more frequently which hopefully will clean out all the internals.

A Battery
Sounds easy, but where does that get fitted (starts investigations into size / power), then there is the physical positioning (a standard battery definitely wont fit below the rear seats) – I also discovered the battery tray I had made for the purpose hits the rear suspension which had not been fitted when I made the battery box… also the battery needs a fat copper cable to transfer power the length of the car – further investigations into cable sizing / cost / terminals but how should I fix the cable to the chassis in a vintage style / where does it route into the car to feed the dashboard mounted kill switch? The starter solenoid will need a switch to operate it which also needs power (and a switch). All this prompts me to think about how to fuse the wiring etc…

Apart from the battery, where should I fit the ignition coil? Probably on the new firewall – but how then does the ignition cable route to the distributor at the front of the car without dropping a lot of energy? The ignition obviously needs a key switch (more wiring to work out). Then there is the distributor timing which I still havnt worked out how to do accuratly…

The fuel tank is in place but needs a pipe to be fabricated to feed the fuel to the fuel pump which sends it on to the engine – where does the fuel pump get fitted? Somewhere on the engine side of the bulkhead makes sense and is in keeping with other vintage sports car i have looled at. But what size pipe do I need to buy then bend into shape to run along the chassis and up into the engine bay to the fuel pump? How do I fix the pipe to the chassis that is in period? The fuel pump also needs electrical power / fuse / isolation switch.

I now have a working (in theory) water pump but I need pipes (that are non standard) to route cool water from the pump into the side of the engine block. I have a safely stored pipe for that (somewhere). Fabricating the pipe from the top of the cylinder head to the radiator has been completed but I now find I have to remove the bonnet in order to fit a rubber hose between the pipe and the radiator (what idiot designed that? Oh…. I will keep quiet)

I broke 3 of the 6 exhaust studs while trying to replace the original long ones with shorter ones. This annoyance resulted in more work careful drilling out the old stud and re-cutting of the threads so my special (smaller) fittings can be inserted. I now know the impact of not being 100% accurate in my drilling – the exhaust manifold doesn’t quite fit anymore – it needs the mounting holes adjusting to accommodate the very slightly off-centre fixings. I can advise that hand filing 10mm thick stainless steel plate is not only taking a while it is jolly boring… Once that is completed I need to make the exhaust gaskets from scratch because nothing is standard anymore.

Other stuff
I then looked at the minimum amount of things I needed on the dashboard to safely get the engine running and it occurred to me that if I made and fitted the dashboard now – I wouldn’t be able to fit the small wind deflectors (cant really call them windscreens) because all the gauges will be in the way. The wind deflectors need custom made support mounts (a fun job for the lathe) – oh and naturally I broke the glass for one of the wind deflectors and have to get another one made…

So bear with me when I am not blogging progress – I havnt ‘completed’ a task for a while and cant decide which item to part blog.

Progress is being made, i simply dont have a lot to show for it…


Ancient tools for ancient machinery

The last couple of weeks I have been playing with a new toy. Well its not ‘new’ to be honest, it has probably been owned by quite a few people. I mentioned a while back that I was going to keep an eye out for a old lathe. The Myford light engineering lathes are very popular which unfortunately means that they command an inflated price. I was looking at the Drummond lathes which were less popular, probably because they are older. I found a few Drummonds on Ebay, all looking a little rusty and unloved, then I found one that had been refurbished which I sniped in the last few seconds for less than half the cost of a Myford. Result. The downside? It was quite a way from me in Otley near Leeds and not just round the corner. Still even factoring in the cost of fuel, it was still good value. So I am now a proud owner of a working 1924 Drummond round bed lathe which will enable me to fabricate a lot of the fittings that would otherwise have cost good money.

Drummond were based in Guildford, Surrey and started making lathes in 1902 moving through a number of designs and versions until WW2. In 1942 Myford took over the manufacturing of the Drummond lathes enabling Drummond to concentrate on other tools critical to the war effort. Despite the age of these lathes, a surprising number of them are still in use. There is a 1/2 horsepower electrical motor driving the lathe through a number of pulley’s and belts. The choice of pulley alters the speed.


This lathe also came with a full set of gears enabling the cutting of threads to be made. They fit onto the left side of the lathe in various combinations and depending on the choice of gears you can cut threads from 2 teeth per inch up to 120. Naturally the threads this lathe cuts are the same as the threads used on the Riley! One day I will pluck up the courage to cut a thread but right now, I am learning to use a lathe from scratch. You tube is very helpful in this regard. The basics though are fairly straight forward so after sharpening the tools and setting them into the right position (thanks to YouTube) i had turned my first piece of steel. Next I tried some brass – also straight forward.

I have now made my first item – its not exciting. It is merely a short tubular section of steel with a grub screw threaded into it that will locate the main gear onto the drive shaft. The point is – I made it and didnt have to ask someone else to make one!

Back to the Riley. The sump was off and cleaned up. The sump plug was a very tatty brass plug that some idiot could not undo so he drove a chisel into the side of it and ‘loosened’ it that way. This of course thoroughly mangled it. Initially I had sanded it down so that it looked a little tidier then I thought… hey I have a lathe now. So the plug is now refaced and is usable again. I also took the opportunity to drill some locking wire holes into it because this is a requirement for Vintage cars used in competitions…


The refaced sump plug is not perfect although it IS now round again – there was far too much damage to it but it is now fully functional. The sump can now be refitted then I move onto cleaning out the gearbox…

Lights, oil, all sorts…

Quiet I have been on the blogging front but not so quiet on the do-ing front. I have found that the lovely Lucas 9″ King of the Road – long range headlamps that i have were never fitted by the factory on ‘my’ Riley – they should have been made by Rotax. However they are the right size, the right period and I am keeping them because they are not as expensive to replace as the far rarer Rotax ones – which is probably why my ones are the wrong type (my car was used for spares)

However saying this – a previous owner had also replaced the headlamp lenses with plain glass – whilst this looked okay, it wont be doing anything at all for focusing the already poor light output so I have been looking for a pair of lenses for quite a while. They are not cheap and not that common either. Rather surprisingly I found a jolly nice fellow who said he had a pair that he didnt need and would let me have them for a small donation to a charity of my choice. I am now the proud owner of a pair of lenses.

My custom built headlamp supports now look rather puny with the lamps in place but they are far more solid than they look, so I will swap the word ‘puny’ for… ‘elegant’.


The car as mentioned is up on high lift ramps so I had access to and dropped the engine sump and took a look at the inside of the engine. Draining the oil was simple as was undoing the 20 odd retaining nuts as was removing the sump itself. It never ceases to amaze me how easy it is to undo fastenings that have probably not moved in 80 years – that never happens with 60’s machinery. I digress… Boy was the sump filled with a lot of horrible sludge of the kind that a swamp monster would be proud of.

It is a fact that vintage oils work differently to modern oils – they are of a single grade, usually SAE30 which means that the oil is thick when cold and thin when hot, modern oils are multigrade and have a consistent viscosity through out a much wider temperature range. The big difference with older oils is that they are designed for waste carbon etc to ‘fall’ to the bottom of the sump and not be carried within the oil to be filtered out – this is why old oil is nearly always a deep black colour . Vintage oil filters did little more than hold back larger lumps of carbon etc.

This means that the sump is a horrible place – its full of thick sticky sludge. The oil was tired and will be replaced very regularly and certainly in less than 5000 miles of use but I didnt want to pour new oil on top of what i assumed would be nasty old oil sludge hence the sump removal. I was still surprised – I can honestly say there was 5-10mm of sludge to scrape out of the sump, I used a chisel because my scraper kept bending, some of it had fine metal filings in it. I suspect the sump had not been cleaned out in a very long time. It is now much cleaner although it will get a jet wash this weekend


What else…. On quieter evenings I took the time to revisit the water pump, repairing part of the inner casing and replacing the internals with new parts. It is old technology and it is never going to be a great distributor of water BUT my car never had a water pump so it has to be an improvement. Said water pump is now fully restored and fitted to the car – now where did i store the pipes that go with it…

What else… bodywork fettling of course, that is ongoing, adjustment of the handbrake lever and I now see I have to work my way through ALL the brake linkages because there is play in a lot of places… wish I had a lathe to make some of the components… casual eye on ebay….IMG_3086

Oh and I am trying to work out what looks nice as an instrument panel. Vintage sports cars were absolutely covered with dials, switches, lamps and other exciting ‘stuff’. This design still looks a bit bare but being blue tacked pieces of paper I can move the gauges around till i find a look i like. This is much cheaper than making a whole series of new panels out of 10mm plywood…IMG_3087

What else to catch-up on…. ah yes, adjusting the gearbox controls, I am told by the experts that this is trial and error. Great! Thanks for that. Right now I can have reverse, 1,2& 3  *OR* 1,2,3&4 but no reverse. Do I need to drive backwards? I think the excitement is probably overrated… but hey-ho I will keep adjusting all the linkages until it works….

Progress has naturally slowed down now that i back at work and the work that i have done since it arrived home is not too exciting because pretty much all i am doing is taking the body apart and smoothing away all the sharp edges. Coach-builders must have hands made of sterner stuff than my mine are, it didnt take long before i had quite a few slices taken out of my hands. I am getting there but it is taking time to ‘finish’ all the panels and converting self tapping screws to brass roundhead setscrews as I go.

The car is now up as high as i can get it in order to finish the underside and to plan out where the fuel pipe will run, where the battery will go, I need to take the sump off to look at the engine internals, drain the gearbox.. there are a million jobs to do the hard part is deciding what to do first…

Trial fitting the headlamps was the chosen quick win. The new mounting arms have been made from tubular steel formed into a pleasing swan neck shape and welded to substantial steel plate shaped to fit onto the chassis rail. At the bottom of the headlamps is a ball shape about 75mm in diameter which fits into a reciprocal shaped cup washer and the whole thing is then clamped down tight using the tubular bolt that fits through the cup washer and the mounting arm. Naturally I didnt have said cup washers but eventually found a pair on ebay for a couple of pounds. I need to finish the shaping of that cup washer so it fits flush onto the supporting arm but that’s not a big job.

Design wise these supports needed careful thought : they had to be placed so they didn’t block the radiator, they had to project slightly outwards so that on coming traffic saw 2 lights and knew it was a car, but they can’t be too far towards the outside otherwise the wheels would hit them AND they had to be sited so that the bonnet could open! I am pleased to say they fit and are in the right place. Phew.

Also ‘in production’ is a custom built aluminium pipe running from the top of the engine into the radiator. The chaps at bespoke bodywork produced the ‘S’ shaped pipe out of sections of aluminium neatly tig welded together. My job is to sand all those welds down so that the pipe is aesthetically more pleasing and looks like it is supposed to be like that. The task is task consuming and most people will not even notice the pipe. I will post a picture when it is good enough to fit.

The search goes on for 2 more wheels to be the spares mounted on the back. I refuse to buy new ones…